Francis Ignatius Neale (June 3, 1756 – December 20, 1837), also known as Francis Xavier Neale, was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who led several academic and religious institutions in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. He played a substantial role in the Jesuit order's restoration in the United States.
Frozen II is a 2019 American computer-animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios as their 58th film and the sequel to Frozen (2013). Set three years after the first film, Frozen II follows sisters Anna and Elsa, Kristoff, his reindeer Sven, and the snowman Olaf as they travel to an enchanted forest to unravel the origin of Elsa's magical power. Frozen II premiered in Los Angeles on November 7, 2019, and was released in the United States on November 22. The film received generally positive reviews for its craftsmanship, delivery, and themes; its narrative and focus drew some criticism, and the music had a mixed reaction. Frozen II earned $1.450 billion worldwide, finishing its theatrical run as the third highest-grossing film of 2019, the tenth highest-grossing film of all time, and the second highest-grossing animated film of all time.
On September 17, 2019, interest rates on overnight repurchase agreements (or "repos"), which are short-term loans between financial institutions, experienced a sudden and unexpected spike. A measure of the interest rate on overnight repos in the United States, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), increased from 2.43% on September 16 to 5.25% on September 17. During the trading day, interest rates reached as high as 10%. The activity also affected the interest rates on unsecured loans between financial institutions, and the Effective Federal Funds Rate (EFFR), which serves as a measure for such interest rates, moved above its target range determined by the Federal Reserve.
Nicoll Highway MRT station is an underground rapid transit station on the Circle line (CCL) in Singapore. Located in the Downtown Core underneath Republic Avenue near the Kallang River, the station serves commercial and residential developments along Nicoll Highway, such as the Golden Mile Complex and The Concourse. The station is operated by SMRT Trains. Alongside the other stations on Stages 1 and 2 of the CCL, the station opened on 17 April 2010.
Hannah Montana is an American teen sitcom created by Michael Poryes, Rich Correll, and Barry O'Brien that aired on Disney Channel for four seasons between March 2006 and January 2011. The series centers on Miley Stewart (Miley Cyrus), a teenage girl living a double life as famous pop singer Hannah Montana, an alter ego she adopted so she could maintain her anonymity and live a normal life as a typical teenager. Episodes deal with Miley's everyday struggles to cope with the social and personal issues of adolescence while maintaining the added complexities of her secret identity, which she sustains by wearing a blonde wig. Overarching themes include a focus on family and friendships as well as the importance of music and discovering one's identity.
The Wonderful Parliament was a session of the English parliament held from October to November 1386 in Westminster Abbey. Originally called to address King Richard II's need for money, it quickly refocused on pressing for the reform of his administration. The King had become increasingly unpopular because of excessive patronage towards his political favourites combined with the unsuccessful prosecution of war in France. Further, there was a popular fear that England was soon to be invaded, as a French fleet had been gathering in Flanders for much of the year. Discontent with Richard peaked when he requested a then-unprecedented sum to raise an army with which to invade France. Instead of granting the King's request, the houses of the Lords and the Commons effectively united against him and his unpopular chancellor, Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk. Seeing de la Pole as both a favourite who had unfairly benefited from the King's largesse, and the minister responsible for the King's failures, parliament demanded the earl's impeachment.
The Armenian genocide was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.
"I've Just Seen a Face" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles. It was released in August 1965 on their album Help!, except in North America, where it appeared as the opening track on the December 1965 release Rubber Soul. Written and sung by Paul McCartney, the song is credited to the Lennon–McCartney partnership. The song is a cheerful love ballad, its lyrics discussing a love at first sight while conveying an adrenaline rush the singer experiences that makes him both enthusiastic and inarticulate.
"Laundromat" is a song by American singer Nivea from her 2002 self-titled debut album. Jive released it in the UK as a double A-side single along with "Don't Mess With My Man" on April 28, 2003. R. Kelly wrote and produced "Laundromat", and performed some uncredited vocals on the recording, which is an R&B and pop track. It was recorded and mixed in Chicago, and was one of the last songs to be produced for the album. The track is structured as a telephone call in which Nivea breaks up with her boyfriend, who is played by Kelly. The lyrics use the laundromat as a metaphor for the washing away of an old relationship.
Interstate 182 (I-182) is an east–west auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Washington. It serves as a connector from I-82 to the Tri-Cities region that crosses the Columbia River on the Interstate 182 Bridge between Richland and Pasco. I-182 is 15 miles (24 km) long and entirely concurrent with U.S. Route 12 (US 12); it also intersects State Route 240 (SR 240) and US 395. Construction on I-182 was scheduled to begin in 1971, but was delayed by opposition from conservation groups, disputes over interchange locations, and a federal freeze on highway funding in 1980. The first section to be built, over the Yakima River west of Richland, began construction in late 1980 and opened to traffic three years later. The Interstate 182 Bridge opened in November 1984 and linked to a longer section opened a month earlier in Pasco connecting to the existing US 12 bypass. The final sections of the freeway, between I-82 and Richland, opened to traffic in March 1986.
The Marmaduke–Walker duel was fought between John S. Marmaduke and Lucius M. Walker, two generals in the Confederate States Army, on September 6, 1863 near Little Rock, Arkansas. Tensions had risen between the two officers during the Battle of Helena on July 4, 1863, when Marmaduke accused Walker of not supporting his force, and then did not inform Walker of a Confederate retreat. Marmaduke was later assigned to serve under Walker during a Union advance against Little Rock. Walker did not support Marmaduke during a retreat after the Battle of Brownsville, and Marmaduke questioned Walker's courage after the Battle of Bayou Meto on August 27. A series of notes passed between the two generals by friends resulted in a duel, during which Walker received a fatal wound. Marmaduke was arrested, but later released; he survived the war and later became Governor of Missouri.
The black-and-yellow broadbill (Eurylaimus ochromalus) is a species of bird in the typical broadbill family Eurylaimidae. A small, distinctive species, it has a black head, breastband, and upperparts, a white neckband, yellow streaking on the back and wings, and wine-pink underparts that turn yellow towards the belly. The beak is bright blue, with a green tip to the upper mandible and black edges. It shows some sexual dimorphism, with the black breastband being incomplete in females. Native to Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand, it inhabits evergreen forest, dipterocarp forest, swamp forest, heath forest, and forest edge, along with secondary forest and plantations that contain large trees.
The Shadow was an American pulp magazine that was published by Street & Smith from 1931 to 1949. Each issue contained a novel about The Shadow, a mysterious crime-fighting figure who had been invented to narrate the introductions to radio broadcasts of stories from Street & Smith's Detective Story Magazine. A line from the introduction, "Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men? The Shadow knows", prompted listeners to ask at newsstands for "The Shadow magazine", which convinced the publisher that a magazine based around a single character could be successful. Walter Gibson persuaded the magazine's editor, Frank Blackwell, to let him write the first novel, The Living Shadow, which appeared in the first issue, dated April 1931.
English offensives in 1345–1347, during the Hundred Years' War, resulted in repeated defeats of the French, the loss or devastation of much French territory and the capture by the English of the port of Calais. The war had broken out in 1337 and flared up in 1340 when the King of England, Edward III, laid claim to the French crown and campaigned in northern France. There was then a lull in the major hostilities, although much small-scale fighting continued.
The Röhm scandal resulted from the public disclosure of Nazi politician Ernst Röhm's homosexuality by anti-Nazis in 1931 and 1932. According to historian Laurie Marhoefer, Röhm became the world's "first openly gay politician" as a result of the scandal.
Paige Madison Bueckers (/ˈbɛkərz/; born October 20, 2001) is an American college basketball player for the UConn Huskies of the Big East Conference in the NCAA Division I. She plays the point guard position.
During the 1992–93 English football season, Gillingham F.C. competed in the Football League Third Division, the fourth tier of the English football league system. It was the 61st season in which Gillingham competed in the Football League, and the 43rd since the club was voted back into the league in 1950. By October, the team were close to the bottom of the Third Division and Damien Richardson was dismissed from his job as the club's manager. Glenn Roeder was appointed as his replacement in a player-manager capacity. The team's performances remained poor and, with two games remaining, Gillingham still faced the possibility of finishing bottom of the league table and being relegated out of the Football League. Victory over Halifax Town in the penultimate match of the season, however, ensured that Gillingham would compete in the Third Division again in the following season. Roeder resigned as manager following the conclusion of the season after less than nine months in charge.
Frederick Wellington "Cyclone" Taylor, MBE (June 23, 1884 – June 9, 1979) was a Canadian professional ice hockey player and civil servant. A cover-point and rover, he played professionally from 1906 to 1922 for several teams, and is most well-known for his time with the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA). Acknowledged as one of the first stars of the professional era of hockey, Taylor was recognized during his career as one of the fastest skaters and most prolific scorers, winning five scoring championships in the PCHA. He also won the Stanley Cup twice, with Ottawa in 1909 and Vancouver in 1915, and was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1947.
William Paul Brady (12 February 1876 – 27 February 1943) was an American lawyer. From 1909 to around 1914 he served as the first district attorney for Texas's seventieth judicial district, with jurisdiction over eleven western counties, and from 1917 to 1919 he was the judge for the newly created El Paso County Court at Law. Brady prosecuted several high-profile murder cases as a district attorney, including of Agnes Orner, and, in a death-penalty case that has since been termed a "legal lynching", of a Mexican boy charged with killing a white woman.
Colossal Cave Adventure (also known as Adventure or ADVENT) is a text-based adventure game, released in 1976 by developer Will Crowther for the PDP-10 mainframe computer. It was expanded upon in 1977 by Don Woods. In the game, the player explores a cave system rumored to be filled with treasure and gold. The game is composed of dozens of areas, and the player moves between these areas and interacts with objects in them by typing one- or two-word commands which are interpreted by the game's natural language input system. The program acts as a narrator, describing the player's location and the results of the player's attempted actions. It is the first well-known example of interactive fiction, as well as the first well-known adventure game, for which it was also the namesake.
The May Pamphlet is a collection of six anarchist essays written and published by Paul Goodman in 1945. Goodman discusses the problems of living in a society that represses individual instinct through coercion. He suggests that individuals resist such conditions by reclaiming their natural instincts and initiative, and by "drawing the line", an ideological delineation beyond which an individual should refuse to conform or cooperate with social convention. While themes from The May Pamphlet—decentralization, peace, social psychology, youth liberation—would recur throughout his works, Goodman's later social criticism focused on practical applications rather than theoretical concerns.
The double florin, or four-shilling piece, was a British coin produced by the Royal Mint between 1887 and 1890. One of the shortest-lived of all British coin denominations, it was struck in only four years. Its obverse, designed by Joseph Boehm and engraved by Leonard Charles Wyon, depicts Queen Victoria, whilst the reverse, featuring national symbols of the United Kingdom, was designed by Wyon based on the coinage of Charles II.
Regina Encarnacion Ansong Velasquez (/rɪˈdʒiːn vɛˈlæskɛz/ rih-JEEN veh-LAS-kez; born April 22, 1970) is a Filipino singer, actress, and producer. She is known for her vocal range, belting technique, and the unorthodox voice training she received during her childhood, where she was immersed neck-deep in the sea. Velasquez rose to prominence after winning the television talent show Ang Bagong Kampeon in 1984 and the Asia Pacific Singing Contest in 1989. Under the name Chona, she signed a recording contract with OctoArts International in 1986 and released the single "Love Me Again", which was commercially unsuccessful. The following year, she adopted the stage name Regine Velasquez for her debut studio album, Regine (1987), under the guidance of Viva Records executive Vic del Rosario and producer Ronnie Henares. She explored Manila sound and kundiman genres on her second and third studio albums, Nineteen 90 (1990) and Tagala Talaga (1991).
Apollo 17 (December 7 – 19, 1972) was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program, the most recent time humans have set foot on the Moon or traveled beyond low Earth orbit. Commander Eugene Cernan and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt walked on the Moon, while Command Module Pilot Ronald Evans orbited above. Schmitt was the only professional geologist to land on the Moon, selected in place of Joe Engle with NASA under pressure to send a scientist to the Moon. The mission's heavy emphasis on science meant the inclusion of a number of new experiments, including a biological experiment containing five mice carried in the command module.
Operation Berlin was a raid conducted by the two German Scharnhorst-class battleships against Allied shipping in the North Atlantic between 22 January and 22 March 1941. It formed part of the Battle of the Atlantic during World War II. The Scharnhorst and Gneisenau sailed from Germany, operated across the North Atlantic, sank or captured 22 Allied merchant vessels, and finished their mission by docking in occupied France. The British military sought to locate and attack the German battleships, but failed to damage them.
"A Canterlot Wedding" is the title of the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth episodes of the second season of the animated television series My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic. The fifty-first and fifty-second episodes overall, they were directed by James Wootton and written by Meghan McCarthy. "A Canterlot Wedding" premiered as an hour-long event on The Hub on April 21, 2012. Twilight Sparkle (Tara Strong) learns her brother, Shining Armor (Andrew Francis), will be marrying Princess Cadance (Britt McKillip). The news excites Twilight but she becomes concerned about the marriage when she notices Cadance is not behaving like the friendly, caring individual she remembers her to be.
Sir Robert de Umfraville KG, Lord of Redesdale (c. 1363 – 1437) was a late medieval English knight who took part in the later stages of the Hundred Years' War, particularly against Scotland. The de Umfraville family had been influential in northeast England for centuries and also held major estates in Yorkshire. His ancestors were mormaers of Angus, and his nephew married into the Percies, a powerful local marcher family with whom de Umfraville was closely associated. Much of Sir Robert's career continued on the same path as his ancestors, being primarily focused on defending the border with Scotland, which was in a state of near-permanent warfare and had been so since the late thirteenth century.
Katrina Kaif ( born Katrina Turquotte; 16 July 1983) is a British actress who works in Hindi-language films. One of the highest-paid actresses in India, she has received several accolades, including four Screen Awards and four Zee Cine Awards, in addition to three Filmfare nominations. Though she has received mixed reviews for her acting, she is noted for her dancing ability in various successful item numbers.
The Black Prince's chevauchée of 1356 was a large-scale mounted raid by an Anglo-Gascon force under the command of Edward, the Black Prince, between 4 August and 2 October 1356 as a part of the Hundred Years' War. The war had broken out in 1337, but a truce and the ravages of the Black Death had restricted the extent of the fighting since 1347. In 1355 the French king, John II, determined to resume full-scale war. That autumn, while Edward III of England threatened northern France, his son, Edward of Woodstock, later known as the Black Prince, carried out a devastating mounted raid, or chevauchée: an Anglo-Gascon army marched from the English possession of Gascony 675 miles (1,086 km) to Narbonne and back. The French refused battle, despite suffering enormous economic damage.
30 featured pictures were promoted this period, with a fantastic mix of historical restorations, modern photography, and cross-nominations from Wikimedia Commons.
Dunkirk is a 2017 epic war film directed Christopher Nolan. The film depicts the Dunkirk evacuation of World War II through the perspectives of the land, sea, and air. Noland wrote the screenplay and produced the film with wife Emma Thomas. Hans Zimmer composed the film's score, and Lee Smith was the film editor. Alex Gibson, Richard King, Gregg Landaker, Gary A. Rizzo, and Mark Weingarten were responsible for the sound effects. The film premiered at Odeon Leicester Square in London on 13 July 2017. Warner Bros. later gave the film a wide release on 21 July at over 11,000 cinemas internationally including over 3,700 in the United States and Canada and over 600 in the United Kingdom. Dunkirk grossed $525 million on a $100 million budget. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, surveyed 461 reviews and judged 92 percent to be positive.
Perissodactyla is an order of placental mammals composed of odd-toed ungulates—hooved animals which bear weight on one or three of their five toes with the other toes either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing backwards. Members of this order are called perissodactyls, and include rhinoceroses, tapirs, and horses. They are primarily found in Africa, southern and southeastern Asia, and Central America, and are found in a variety of biomes, most typically grassland, savanna, inland wetlands, shrubland, and desert. Perissodactyls range in size from the 1.8 m (6 ft) long Baird's tapir to the 4 m (13 ft) long white rhinoceros. Over 50 million domesticated donkeys and 58 million horses are used in farming worldwide, while four species of perissodactyl have potentially fewer than 200 members remaining. Three subspecies of the black rhinoceros, the Syrian wild ass subspecies of the onager, and the tarpan subspecies of the wild horse have gone extinct in the last 200 years.
Mohabbatein (transl. Love Stories) is a 2000 Indian Hindi-language romantic drama film written and directed by Aditya Chopra. It tells the story of the all-boys college Gurukul's principal Narayan Shankar (Bachchan) who prohibits his students from falling in love and will unhesitantly expel those who do not obey the rule. The rest of the film focuses on how the arrival of the violin teacher Raj Aryan Malhotra (Khan) changes his views. The film opened at theatres on 27 October 2000 and was met with widespread acclaim from critics, who praised the performances of Bachchan and Khan. Made on a production budget of ₹130 million (US$1.7 million), the film had a total gross of ₹900.1 million (US$12 million) becoming the year's highest-grossing Indian film.
The 72nd Primetime Emmy Awards honored the best in American prime time television programming from June 1, 2019, until May 31, 2020, as chosen by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. The ceremony was originally to be held at the Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles, California, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was instead hosted from the Staples Center, while winners gave speeches remotely from their homes or other locations. It aired live on September 20, 2020, following the 72nd Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards on September 14–17 and 19. During the ceremony, Emmy Awards were handed out in 23 categories. The ceremony was produced by Done and Dusted, directed by Hamish Hamilton, and broadcast in the United States by ABC. Jimmy Kimmel served as host for the third time.
The Filipino indie folk/folk pop/pop rock band Ben&Ben has released two studio albums, one extended play (EP), 29 singles, five promotional singles, and one charity single under the record labels Sony Music Philippines and Sindikato. In addition, the band has released 24 music videos, is featured in three singles and four music videos by other artists, and their songs have been used in 12 films and television series. The band was formed as The Benjamins in 2015 by Paolo and Miguel Benjamin Guico. In 2016, the band was renamed and released an eponymous EP consisting of seven songs. In 2017, Ben&Ben expanded into an ensemble, adding Poch Barretto as electric guitarist, Jam Villanueva as drummer, Agnes Reoma as bassist, Patricia Lasaten as keyboardist, Toni Muñoz and Andrew de Pano as percussionists, as well as Keifer Cabugao as violinist, with the Guicos being acoustic guitarists.
The 24 Hours of Le Mans (French: 24 Heures du Mans) is an annual Triple Crown 24-hour automobile endurance race organised by the automotive group Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and held on the Circuit de la Sarthe race track close to the city of Le Mans, the capital of the French department of Sarthe. It was first held as the Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency in 1923, after the automotive journalist Charles Faroux to Georges Durand, the ACO general secretary, and the industrialist Emile Coquile, agreed to hold the race for car manufacturers to test vehicle durability, equipment and reliability. Each overall victor is presented with a trophy bearing the event's emblem and the logo of the ACO commissioned by the sporting director Jean-Pierre Moreau in 1993. All three-time consecutive winning manufacturers permanently keep the trophy. Since 1991, at the initiative of a man named Bernard Warain, a cast of the winning driver's feet, hands and signature are taken before the following year's race and put in a bronze car-wheel shaped plaque that is placed into the pavement in Le Mans' Saint Nicholas district.
Joanne Rowling, known by her pen name J. K. Rowling, is a British author, philanthropist, film producer and screenwriter. She has won numerous accolades for her Harry Potter book series, including general literature prizes, honours in children's literature and speculative fiction awards. Rowling's early career awards include the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for services to children's literature in 2000, and three years later, the Spanish Prince of Asturias Award for Concord. She won the British Book Awards' Author of the Year and Outstanding Achievement prizes over the span of the Harry Potter series. Following the series' completion, Time named Rowling a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year, citing the social, moral and political inspiration she gave the Harry Potter fandom. Two years later, she was recognised as a Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur by French President Nicolas Sarkozy; leading magazine editors then named her the "Most Influential Woman in the UK" the following October. Later awards include the Freedom of the City of London in 2012 and for her services to literature and philanthropy, the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH) in 2017.
The chancellor of Austria is the head of government of Austria, appointed by the president and viewed as the country's de facto chief executive. The chancellor chairs and leads the Cabinet, which also includes the vice chancellor and the ministers. Following World War I, the office was established by the Provisional National Assembly on 30 October 1918 and named state chancellor of the Republic of German-Austria, and its first holder, Karl Renner, was appointed by the State Council. After the Allied Powers denied German-Austria to merge with the Weimar Republic, the country formed the federal First Austrian Republic and the office was renamed from state chancellor to federal chancellor. The first federal chancellor was Michael Mayr. There have been ten chancellors who served under the First Republic until Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss created the authoritarian and dictatorial Federal State of Austria. Following Dollfuss's assassination by Austrian National Socialists, Kurt Schuschnigg succeeded him as chancellor and upheld the dictatorship. Schuschnigg was replaced by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a Nazi caretaker who held the office for two days, until Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany.
The city of Spokane is located in eastern state of Washington and is the metropolitan center of the Inland Northwest region of the United States, where it serves as an retail trade and services hub. Spokane has 40 high-rise buildings in addition to 134 low-rise buildings (as of January 2022). High-rise development in Spokane began in 1891 shortly after the Great Fire of 1889 with the completion of the 146-foot (45 m) Review Building featuring a traditional brick and solid stone construction. After the advent of steel frame building construction, allowing for increased strength to support more floors, local applications of this technology began showing up in a significant way in the early 20th century in the form of the US Bank Building (built 1910), and the Paulsen Medical and Dental Building (built 1929), both of which became the tallest in the city respectively. In addition to being the tallest building in the city, the US Bank Building was also the tallest building in Washington state upon its completion in 1910. The current tallest building in Spokane, which surpassed the Paulsen Medical and Dental Building, is the 288-foot (88 m) tall Bank of America Financial Center that was completed in 1981, holding the distinction for 41 years.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designates World Heritage Sites of outstanding universal value to cultural or natural heritage which have been nominated by countries that are signatories to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. As of 2022, there are 17 World Heritage Sites listed in Portugal, with a further 19 on the tentative list. The first four sites listed in Portugal were the Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon, the Monastery of Batalha, the Convent of Christ in Tomar, and the town of Angra do Heroísmo, in 1983. The most recent additions to the list were the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga and the Palace of Mafra with its hunting park in 2019. One site, the Laurisilva, is located in the island of Madeira and is Portugal's only natural site; the other sites are cultural. Two sites are located in the Azores archipelago. The Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde is shared with Spain, making it Portugal's only transnational site.
Leporidae is a family of small mammals in the order Lagomorpha. A member of this family is called a leporid, or colloquially a hare or rabbit. They are widespread worldwide, and can be found in most terrestrial biomes, though primarily in forests, savannas, shrublands, and grasslands. Leporids are all roughly the same shape and fall within a small range of sizes with short tails, ranging from the 21 cm (8 in) long Tres Marias cottontail to the 76 cm (30 in) long desert hare. Most species do not have population estimates and some are not yet evaluated for conservation status, though nine species are considered endangered and one, the riverine rabbit, is critically endangered with a population size of as low as 100. The domestic rabbit subspecies of the European rabbit has been domesticated.
The sport of professional snooker has had a world ranking system in place since 1976. Certain tournaments were given "ranking" status, with the results at those events contributing to a player's world ranking. The events that made up the 1976–77 snooker season were the first to award players with ranking points. Originally, the world rankings were decided based only on results in the World Snooker Championship, but other events were later added. The system used for the 2019–20 snooker season was first used in the 2010–11 season, where players won ranking points based entirely on prize money won from these events. The rankings are based on the prior two seasons, with ten revisions after specific tournaments throughout the season. These revisions are used as official rankings, with points awarded in the current season overwriting those from two years prior. Ronnie O'Sullivan began the season as the highest ranked player; however, Judd Trump became world number one after winning the 2019 International Championship. Trump retained the position until the end of the season, where he had a lead of over 500,000 points, despite O'Sullivan winning 500,000 points at the 2020 World Snooker Championship. During the season, Trump took a record number of ranking events, winning six.